With Tracy Fullerton, I will be doing a “Critical Conversation” session on Wednesday July 23, 2014 at 5pm. Our topic is the Reality Ends Here game, and the session considers the game’s learning goals and evaluation strategy (hint: network analysis, drawing on my dissertation research). The conference runs for several days, this year held at USC. In the conference organizers’ words: “The Serious Play Conference, now in our 4th year, is a leadership conference for professionals who embrace the idea that games can revolutionize learning.” See also the conference program.
Update: Video of our panel is now live! (per 5/20/2014)
Session description (original post):
At our session this week at Games for Change, we will be announcing a new project to frame “how games have impact.” The idea is that the field is fragmented, and unnecessarily so. Funding from the Packard Foundation agrees that a typology of sorts might be worth investigating. Can we start bringing the disparate research together with how assessment practitioners actually approach their jobs? More to come, but for now here are the details:
Title: Impact from Games? Pick the Right Field First!
Presenters: Benjamin Stokes, Tracy Fullerton, Gerad O’Shea, Shelley Pasnik
Description: What kind of impact is possible with a game? The secret is that successful games have *different* kinds of impact. Too often, the success factors and indicators are mucked together. Perhaps it is time we stop confusing behavior change with advocacy campaigns, let alone success in crowd-sourced labor! For the first time, with funding from the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, we are aiming to spell out different big picture frameworks for “how games have impact.” On April 24th, we are launching this public discourse: come away with starting points to evaluate your next game, and maximize its impact.
This Thursday March 27th, I will be giving an update on our research with the Leimert Phone Company at the USC Annenberg Symposium. Details are below. I will be co-presenting with collaborating researchers Karl Baumann and Andrew Schrock.
Reimagining Payphones: Urban Planning via the Leimert Phone Company
Join me on February 12th at the UC Berkeley School of Information for a brown bag seminar. I will be discussing my research on games that directly shape real-world networks. 12:10pm-1pm in 107 South Hall. For details, see their announcement.
Later this month, join me for presentations in both Washington, D.C. and Oakland, CA:
- At the 99th annual National Communication Association (NCA) conference, I will be chairing a session and presenting on “Embedding Literacy in the Neighborhood: Mobile Media in South LA, and Reducing the Participation Gap” in Washington D.C. on November 21st from 2-3:15pm (see below for extended description; location is Capitol Room/Lobby Level).
- Earlier in the month, our participatory mapping project will be presenting in Oakland at the California by Bike Summit on bicycles, digital media and apps on November 9th from 1-2:25pm with several of our RideSouthLA community partners. If you’ll be there, look us up! Details follow below.
The Guggenheim Museum invited me to create a video as part of their new exhibit on the Participatory City. I tapped our crew at RideSouthLA to address the term “Collaborative Urban Mapping,” based on our work in South LA with the Healthy Food Map. The video was funded as part of the Guggenheim’s exhibit, which addresses “100 Urban Trends from the BMW Guggenheim Lab,” and is showing in NYC through January 5, 2014. The exhibit explores the major themes and ideas that emerged from the Lab during its travels to New York, Berlin, and Mumbai.
“Collaborative urban mapping” is different than just making group maps online, or celebrating the digital. To make our maps, we take a deliberately low-tech approach to the collaborative side, both for reasons of equity and innovation. Our goal with mapping is to empower a neighborhood, since empowerment shifts the frame to collective efficacy and civic literacy, rather than data as a good unto itself.
In South LA, we want to shatter some stereotypes — to show that the Watts Towers can be reached by bicycle, that urban gardens are often hidden in plain sight. Mapping is a kind of local media, spreading stories that resonate with neighborhood storytelling networks.
We tell a collective story with our process, embedding mapping with bike parades and group walks. The Vojo technology works with very basic phones (no apps!), reaching across the digital divide. Participants are invited to tell their own stories in pictures and SMS messages. We resist the “crowdsourcing” that treats participants as cheap sensors for data. Instead, we proclaim that distributing our voices is an act of civic advocacy, a way to build power.
Even as we mount iPads to bicycle handlebars, our multi-platform approach always involves paper and people. Paper maps are easy to write on and draw what should change. “Walk the map,” we say — and tell us what is missing! Use it to organize! For us, every part of mapping is an excuse to talk to strangers and friends, to set neighborhood priorities and to advance social change.
The physical installation evidently looks like the image below, according to the Guggenheim. Our term appears in the gallery (it’s in the top-left of the diagram on the wall below), but the video itself shows primarily online.
USC News quoted me in their story about the video release on October 11th.
RideSouthLA is a collective that is bringing mobile mapping, bicycling and social justice to South LA. Our mapping is multi-platform, involving mobile phones, paper and our bodies in space. We seek to tell a neighborhood story of assets and opportunities that is bigger than any one organization. For us, mapping is a tool for social change — documenting our community, envisioning our future, and building our collective power. Our team includes many organizations and individuals, including TRUST South LA, Community Services Unlimited, bike clubs like the East Side Riders, and University partners including the USC Annenberg Innovation Lab, the Metamorphosis Project, and the USC Laboratory on the Social Frontier. Technology and design partners include VozMob, Vojo.Co, and DesignedByColleen. Countless individuals have joined our mapping process by contributing their own images, stories and strategies for change.
We are thrilled to be presenting a paper at DiGRA this summer. In brief, we argue for network analysis as an increasingly important method to study games for social learning. You can read our paper pre-print, or see the abstract below. We’re scheduled for Tuesday, August 27th at 2:30pm.
A Reality Game to Cross Disciplines? Building Human Capital, Passion and Offline Networks with Reality Ends Here. By Benjamin Stokes, Jeff Watson, Tracy Fullerton and Simon Wiscombe.
ABSTRACT: Educational and civic games are typically preparatory, teaching skills and information to be applied later. Yet the rise of reality gaming introduces a new possibility: that the game directly shapes real-world networks, even as it educates. Social capital and network effects — despite their complexity — are crucial in educational attainment, knowledge transfer, and civic participation. However, there is little research on how games can actively intervene to build lasting networks and social capital as a core component of gameplay.
Using methods of network analysis, this paper investigates the “Reality Ends Here” game over two years at a University in the United States. Reality Ends Here is played by incoming freshmen for 120 days in the fall semester of each school year. Students are drawn into the game via collectible cards, rumors, secret websites, and a mysterious black flag. The goal of the game is to increase and diversify student collaboration across disciplines, build social capital, and foster networking skills. The game is deliberately kept underground and unofficial, a rare design requirement in formal education.
The contribution of this paper is to demonstrate a framework for designing learning interventions around network effects, and measuring them with network analysis. Currently, network analysis is typically applied only to test game prototypes before scaling to wider distribution, or as heat maps for usability testing, or to measure game impact. We argue that network analysis may offer more value in a formative mode, providing what game designers refer to as “state information,” and integrating into the real-time practices of teachers. For example, we demonstrate how a player’s network centrality is correlated to their score in the game, and thus how well game performance is tied to network strength.
The game itself is part of a broader educational reform agenda for college freshmen. By connecting students to one another in ways that are both serendipitous and structured to maximize meaningful play and performance, the game seeks to help transform heavily siloed academic divisions into a productively chaotic and interdisciplinary community of practice. We analyze how disciplinary networks (i.e., academic majors) manifest in the game, and how overcoming them can be predictive of success in the game.
This paper analyzes how peer-to-peer learning and community-building can be structured as a real-world game, rewarding the development of the kinds of practices that are useful for collective organizing and meaningful participation. Additionally, this paper will help build theory for a more formative use of network analysis in game deployments. The immediate context is higher education, but the lessons are applicable to informal learning and civic education. Experiential learning is fundamental to building educational and civic habits; with this paper, the field will have a better basis for applying network analysis to optimize real-world games that build networks and social capital.
On June 23rd we’ll be presenting on Phone Booths Against Gentrification in Detroit at the Allied Media Conference. Several of us from the Leimert Phone Company will be going.
Description: Across the country, public phone booths are dying. Is this a hidden opportunity to reclaim physical space, and tell a different story? We go beyond booths as wifi hotspots. This session reveals an ambitious strategy for a “payphone redesign”, mixing installation art with mobile technology and activism. Focused on a case study in South Los Angeles, we will show how ordinary booths can be sites for participatory design and transmedia storytelling tied to justice. Workshop participants will also develop rapid-prototypes to re-imagine payphones for various campaigns and cities worldwide.
Our session at ICA in London on June 19 at 2pm is on Games, Civic Education, and Civic Engagement in the Comm-tech division. (Room Hilton Metropole: York). Chair: Chad Raphael, Santa Clara U.
Digital games are being designed not simply to prepare youth for civic participation, but to immerse people of all ages directly in civic participation. This panel brings together game designers and scholars to advance our understanding of how to create, employ, theorize about, and research games for civic learning and engagement. Case studies exemplifying multiple research methods draw on and extend research in game studies, computer-mediated communication, and political communication.
- A Model for Civic Game Design in “Global Conflicts:
Afghanistan.” Jeppe Nielsen, Serious Games Interactive
Civic Games and Civic Gaps: Which Students Benefit Most
From Civic Game Play? Christine Bachen, Santa Clara U;
Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, Santa Clara U; Chad Raphael,
Santa Clara U
- Teaching College Students to Build Networks: The “Reality”
Game. Benjamin Stokes, U of Southern California; Jeff
Watson, U of Southern California
- Beyond Participation: How an Online Game Transformed
Urban Planning in Detroit. Eric Gordon, Engagement Game
Lab; Jessica Baldwin-Philippi, Emerson College
I’ll be presenting on A Game to Build Human Networks in NYC on June 18th at 3pm (see link for details). Here’s the abstract:
Educational and civic games are typically preparatory, teaching skills and information to be applied later. Yet the rise of reality gaming introduces a new possibility: that the game directly shapes real-world networks, even as it educates. This will be one of the first network analyses at G4C. The case is “Reality Ends Here,” played over two years with hundreds of college freshmen. Students are drawn into the game via collectible cards, rumors, secret websites, and a mysterious black flag. Session attendees will learn how they can apply network analysis to their own games, including real-time visualizations of network effects.